Tuesday, 14 October 2014

MCMLX What happened in the World?

Events (source: Wikipedia, edited)

January

  • January – The state of emergency is lifted in Kenya, officially ending the Mau Mau Uprising.
  • January 1 – Cameroon gains its independence from French-administered U.N. trusteeship.
  • January 2 – U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy (D-MA) announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
  • January 6 - The Associations Law comes into force in Iraq, allowing registration of political parties.
  • January 21 – A mine collapses at Coalbrook, South Africa, killing 500 miners.
  • January 30 – The African National Party is founded in Chad, through the merger of traditionalist parties.

February

  • February 1 – In Greensboro, North Carolina, four black students from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University begin a sit-in at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter. Although they are refused service, they are allowed to stay at the counter. The event triggers many similar nonviolent protests throughout the Southern United States, and six months later the original four protesters are served lunch at the same counter.

A section of lunch counter from the Greensboro, North Carolina Woolworth's where the Greensboro sit-ins began is now preserved in the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History
  • February 3 – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan makes the Wind of Change speech to the South African Parliament in Cape Town (although he had first made the speech, to little publicity, in Accra, Gold Coast – now Ghana – on January 10).
  • February 5 – The first CERN particle accelerator becomes operational in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • February 9
    • Joanne Woodward receives the first star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
  • February 13 – France tests its first atomic bomb - in the Sahara Desert of Algeria.
  • February 18 – The 1960 Winter Olympic Games begin at the Squaw Valley Ski Resort, in Placer County, California.
  • February 26 – A New York-bound Alitalia airliner crashes into a cemetery at Shannon, Ireland, shortly after takeoff, killing 34 of the 52 persons on board.
  • February 29 – The 1960 Agadir earthquake completely destroys the town of Agadir, Morocco.

March



The iconic picture of Che Guevara."
  • March 3 - Elvis Presley returns home from Germany, after being away on military duty for 2 years.
  • March 5
    • Elvis Presley receives his honorable discharge from the U.S. Army.
    • Alberto Korda takes his iconic photograph of Che Guevara, Guerrillero Heroico, in Havana.
  • March 6
    • Vietnam War: The United States announces that 3,500 American soldiers will be sent to Vietnam.
    • The Canton of Geneva in Switzerland gives women the right to vote.
  • March 17 – Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 710 crashes near Tell City, Indiana, killing all 63 on board.
  • March 21 – The Sharpeville massacre in South Africa results in more than 69 dead, 300 injured.
  • March 22 – Arthur Leonard Schawlow & Charles Hard Townes receive the first patent for a laser.
  • March 29 – "Tom Pillibi" by Jacqueline Boyer (music by André Popp, text by Pierre Cour) wins the Eurovision Song Contest 1960 for France.

April


Tiros I prototype on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
  • April 1
    • The United States launches the first weather satellite, TIROS-1.
    • The 1960 United States Census begins. There are 179,323,175 U.S. residents on this day. All people from Latin America are listed as white, including blacks from the Dominican Republic, European whites from Argentina and Mexicans who resemble Native Americans.
  • April 4
    • At the 32nd Academy Awards ceremony, Ben-Hur wins a record number of Oscars, including Best Picture.
    • Elvis Presley's song "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" is recorded for the first time.
  • April 9 – Gunman David Pratt shoots South African Prime Minister Henrik Verwoerd in Johannesburg in retaliation for the Sharpeville massacre, wounding him seriously.
  • April 12 – Eric Peugeot, the youngest son of the founder of the Peugeot Corporation, is kidnapped in Paris. Then, he is released on April 15 in exchange for $300,000 in ransom.
  • April 19 – April Revolution: South Korean students hold a nationwide pro-democracy protest against President Syngman Rhee, eventually leading him to resign from that office.
  • April 21 – In Brazil, the country's capital (Federal District) is relocated from the city of Rio de Janeiro to the new city, Brasília, in the highlands. The actual city of Rio de Janeiro becomes the State of Guanabara.
  • April 27 – Togo gains independence from France, with the French-administered United Nations Trust Territory being terminated.

May


Francis Gary Powers wearing special pressure suit for stratospheric flying
  • May 1
    • Several Soviet surface-to-air missiles shoot down an American Lockheed U-2 spy plane. Its pilot, Francis Gary Powers of the Central Intelligence Agency, is captured.
    • In India, May 1 is declared as 'Maharashtra Divas', i.e., Maharashtra Day (also celebrated as 'Kaamgaar Divas', i.e., Workers Day).
  • May 6 – President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1960 into law.
  • May 9 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announces that it will approve birth control as an additional indication for Searle's Enovid, making it the world's first approved oral contraceptive pill.
  • May 11 – In Buenos Aires, four Mossad agents abduct the fugitive Nazi criminal against humanity, Adolf Eichmann, in order that he can be taken to Israel and put on trial. (Eichmann is later convicted and executed).
  • May 14 – The Kenyan African National Congress Party is founded in Kenya, when 3 political parties join forces.
  • May 15 – The satellite Sputnik 4 is launched into orbit by the Soviet Union.
  • May 22 – The Great Chilean Earthquake: Chile's subduction fault ruptures from Talcahuano to Taitao Peninsula, causing the most powerful earthquake on record (with a magnitude of 9.5) and a tsunami. Because of its power, the seismographs in the city of Valdivia are overloaded and malfunction through the entire earthquake.
  • May 23 – Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion announces that Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann has been captured.
  • May 27 – In Turkey, a bloodless military coup d'état removes President Celâl Bayar and installs General Cemal Gürsel the as head of state.
  • May 30 – Cemal Gürsel forms the new government of Turkey (its 24th government, composed mostly of so-called "technocrats").

June

  • June 7 – U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy wins the California Democratic primary.
  • June 9 – Typhoon Mary kills 1,600 people in China.
  • June 10 – Domino's Pizza is founded.
  • June 20 – The short-lived Mali Federation, consisting of the Sudanese Republic (now the Republic of Mali) and Senegal, gains independence from France.
  • June 24 – Joseph Kasa-Vubu is elected as the first President of the independent Congo.
  • June 26
    • The State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland protectorate) receives its independence from the United Kingdom. Five days later, it unites as scheduled with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.
    • The Malagasy Republic, now Madagascar, becomes independent from France.
  • June 30
    • The Belgian Congo receives its independence from Belgium as the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville). A civil war follows closely on the heels of this.
    • Public demonstrations by democratic and left forces, against Italian government support of the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, are heavily suppressed by police.

July

  • July 1
    • Ghana becomes a republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President.
    • Cold War: A Soviet Air Force MiG-19 fighter plane flying north of Murmansk, Russia, over the Barents Sea shoots down a six-man RB-47 Stratojet reconnaissance plane of the U.S. Air Force. Four of the U.S. Air Force officers are killed, and the two survivors are held prisoner in the Soviet Union.
    • The Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somaliland) gains its independence from Italy. Concurrently, it unites as scheduled with the five day-old State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland) to form the Somali Republic.
  • July 4 – Following the admission of the State of Hawaii as the 50th state in August 1959, the new 50-star Flag of the United States is first officially flown over Philadelphia.
  • July 10 – The Soviet Union national football team defeats the Yugoslavian national football team 2–1 in Paris to win the first European Soccer Championship.
  • July 11
  • July 13 – U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy is nominated for President of the United States at the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles.
  • July 14 – The United Nations Security Council decides to send troops to Katanga to oversee the withdrawal of Belgian troops.
  • July 21 – Francis Chichester, English navigator and yachtsman, arrives at New York City aboard his yacht, Gypsy Moth II, crossing the Atlantic Ocean solo in a new record of just forty days.
  • July 25 – The Woolworth Company's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, the location of a sit-in that had sparked demonstrations by Negroes across the Southern United States, serves a meal to its first black customer.
  • July 25–July 28 – In Chicago, the 1960 Republican National Convention nominates Vice President Richard Nixon as its candidate for President of the United States, and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., as its candidate to become the new Vice-President.

August

  • August 1 – Dahomey, now known as Benin, becomes independent from France.
  • August 3 – Niger becomes independent from France.
  • August 5 – Upper Volta, now known as Burkina Faso, becomes independent from France.
  • August 6
  • August 7 – The Côte d'Ivoire (the Ivory Coast) becomes independent from France.
  • August 7 - The world's first standard gauge passenger preserved railway, The Bluebell Railway, opens to the public.
  • August 11 – Chad becomes independent from France.
  • August 13 – Ubangi-Shari becomes independent from France, as the "Central African Republic". It later becomes the "Central African Empire" for some years.
  • August 15 – Middle Congo becomes independent from France, as Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville).
  • August 16
    • Joseph Kittinger parachutes from a balloon over New Mexico at an aititude of about 102,800 feet (31,333 meters). Kittinger sets world records for: high-altitude jump; free-fall by falling 16.0 miles (25.7 kilometers) before opening his parachute; and the fastest speed attained by a human being without mechanical or chemical assistance, about 982 k.p.h (614 m.p.h.). (Kittinger survives more or less uninjured, and he is still alive in Florida as of 2013. Felix Baumgartner breaks his record in 2012.)
    • The Mediterranean island of Cyprus receives its independence from the United Kingdom.
  • August 17
    • The newly named Beatles begin a 48-night residency at the Indra club in Hamburg, West Germany.
    • Gabon becomes independent from France.
  • August 19
    • Cold War: In Moscow, American U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers is sentenced to 10 years in prison for espionage.
    • Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches the satellite Sputnik 5, with the dogs Belka and Strelka (the Russian for "Squirrel" and "Little Arrow"), 40 mice, two rats and a variety of plants. This satellite returns to earth the next day and all animals are recovered safely.
  • August 20 – Senegal breaks away from the Mali Federation, declaring its independence.
  • August 25
    • The 1960 Summer Olympic Games begin in Rome.
    • The American nuclear submarine USS Seadragon (SSN-584) surfaces through the arctic ice cap at the North Pole, the first submarine ever to do so.
  • August 29 – Hurricane Donna kills 50 people in Florida and New England.

September

  • September 2 – The first elections of the Parliament of the Central Tibetan Administration are held. The Tibetan community observes this date as Democracy Day.
  • September 5
  • September 8 – In Huntsville, Alabama, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally dedicates the Marshall Space Flight Center (which had been activated by NASA on July 1).
  • September 14
    • The countries of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela form OPEC.
  • September 22 – Mali, the sole remaining member of the "Mali Federation" following the withdrawal of Senegal one month earlier, declares its full independence as the Republic of Mali.
  • September 26 – The leading candidates for President of the United States, Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy, make the first televised debate.
  • September 30 – Television cartoon sitcom The Flintstones debuts on ABC.

October

  • October 1
    • Nigeria becomes independent from United Kingdom, and Nnamdi Azikiwe becomes its first native-born Governor General.
    • Cameroon declares independence from United Kingdom.
  • October 5 – White South Africans vote to make the country a republic.
  • October 7 – Nigeria becomes the 99th member of the United Nations.
  • October 12
    • Cold War: Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe on a table at a meeting of the United Nations General Assembly, his way of protesting the discussion of the Soviet Union's policies toward Eastern Europe.
  • October 14 – Presidential candidate John F. Kennedy first suggests the idea for the Peace Corps of the United States.
  • October 14 – The Premier of NSW officially opened Warragamba Dam, one of the world's largest domestic water supply dams.
  • October 24 – A large rocket explodes on the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, killing at least 90 people of the Soviet space program.
  • October 26 – Robert F. Kennedy telephones Coretta Scott King, the wife of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and he also secures King's release from jail regarding a traffic violation in Atlanta.
  • October 29 – In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional boxing match.
  • October 30 – Dr. Michael Woodruff carries out the first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom, at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.

November



November 15: Polaris missile test
  • November 2 – Penguin Books is found not guilty of obscenity, in the case of D. H. Lawrence's novel Lady Chatterley's Lover.
  • November 8 – United States presidential election, 1960: In a close race, Democratic U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy is elected over Republican U. S. Vice President Richard Nixon, to become (at 43) the second youngest man to serve as President of the United States, and the youngest man elected to this position.
  • November 13 – Sammy Davis, Jr., marries Swedish actress May Britt.
  • November 14
    • Belgium threatens to leave the United Nations over criticism of its policy concerning the Republic of the Congo.
    • A collision between two trains in Pardubice, Czechoslovakia, kills 117 people.
  • November 15 – A Polaris missile is test-launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida
  • November 28 – Mauritania becomes independent of France.

December

  • December
    • The African and Malagasy Organisation for Economic Cooperation (OAMCE) (Organisation Africain et Malagache de Coopération Économique) is established.
    • Édith Piaf's recording of "Non, je ne regrette rien" is released in France.
  • December 1
    • A Soviet satellite containing live animals and plants is launched into orbit. Due to a malfunction it burns up during re-entry.
  • December 2
    • The Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Rev. Geoffrey Francis Fisher, talks with Pope John XXIII for about one hour in Vatican City. This is the first time that any chief of the Anglican Church had ever visited the Pope.
    • U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorizes the use of $1.0 million for the relief and resettlement of Cuban refugees, who had been arriving in Florida at the rate of about 1,000 per week.
  • December 4 – The admission of Mauritania to the United Nations is vetoed by the Soviet Union.
  • December 5
    • Boynton v. Virginia: The Supreme Court of the United States declares that segregation in public transportation is illegal in the United States.
  • December 8 – For the first time, Mary Martin's Peter Pan is presented as a stand-alone two-hour special on NBC instead of as part of an anthology series. This version, rather than being presented live, is shown on videotape, enabling NBC to repeat it as often as they wish without having to restage it. Although nearly all of the adult actors repeat their original Broadway roles, all of the original children have, ironically, outgrown their roles and are replaced by new actors.
  • December 9
    • French President Charles de Gaulle's visit to Algeria is bloodied by European and Muslim rioters in Algeria's largest cities. These riots cause 127 deaths.
    • The classic British TV series Coronation Street premieres. Planned as a 13-part drama, it becomes such a success among viewers it continues to be shown five times per week through 2012.
  • December 11 – MGM's The Wizard of Oz is rerun on CBS only a year after its previous telecast, thus beginning the tradition of annual telecasts of the film.
  • December 12 – The Supreme Court of the United States upholds a lower Federal Court ruling that the State of Louisiana's racial segregation laws are unconstitutional, and overturns them.
  • December 13
    • While Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia visits Brazil, his Imperial Bodyguard leads a military coup against his rule, proclaiming that the emperor's son, Crown Prince Asfa Wossen, is the new emperor.
    • The countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua announce the formation of the Central American Common Market.
    • The U.S. Navy's Commander Leroy Heath (pilot) and Lieutenant Larry Monroe (bombardier/navigator) establish a world flight-altitude record of 91,450 feet (27,874 m), with payload, in an A-5 Vigilante bomber carrying 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), and better the previous world record by over four miles (6 km).
  • December 15
    • King Mahendra of Nepal deposes the democratic government there and takes direct control himself.
    • King Baudouin of Belgium marries Doña Fabiola de Mora y Aragon.
  • December 16
    • New York air disaster: A United Airlines DC-8 collides in mid-air with a TWA Lockheed Constellation over Staten Island in New York City. All 128 passengers and crewmembers on the two airliners, and six people on the ground, are killed.
  • December 17 – Troops loyal to Emperor Haile Selassie I in Ethiopia overcome the coup that began on December 13, returning the reins to the Emperor upon his return from a trip to Brazil. The Emperor absolves his own son of any guilt.
  • December 19 – Fire sweeps through the USS Constellation, to become the U.S. Navy's largest aircraft carrier, while she is under construction at the Brooklyn Navy Yard; killing 50 workers and injuring 150.
  • December 27 – France sets off its third A-bomb test at its nuclear weapons testing range near Reggane, Algeria.
  • December 31 – Last day on which the farthing, a coin first minted in England in the 13th century, is legal tender in the United Kingdom.

14 comments:

  1. Goodness Han...it must have taken you a long time to research and write all of this! Thanks for sharing all these interesting facts.

    Hugs and Blessings...
    Cat

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Ah well, the post is way, way too long for a good blogpost. And I already skipped about 1/3 of the available data... It must be the teacher in me that wants to give all these details :-) Anyway the number of (African) nations that declared indepence in 1960 is really remarkable.


      And I did underestimate the hours of work that have gone in the preperation of this week. Good news though, what happened in Holland tomorrow, and what happened in Han's life is much shorter...

      Thank you for your time,

      Han

      Delete
  2. You're right Han. As Cat said, this is an incredible wealth of info, As I said the other day, I was a sophomore in high school and the world revolved around me and my friends. It's amazing how much I missed.
    Thanks for your hard work.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. You were busy finding out what your place in life is amongst friends. The world is limited to your friends and the problems and challenges they face. And that is just as important Leigh as those events on a world scale!
      I'm just happy to paint the context in wich that all happened.

      Thank you for reading... :-)

      Han

      Delete
  3. This is a lot of information. It was before I was born but I know about these events (most of them). I like learning history but Ty has the memory around here.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I was busy doing Wahhhh! Most of my forst year so this has been interesting for me as well as a history lesson. the good years are still to come, Blonde, still to come. Hang on!

      Thanks for rading...

      Han

      Delete
  4. Wow !
    How world had changed . And it is only 54 years ago!!

    I would like to see Chruscev with his shoe... Lol

    Great job, Han.

    ML

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Throwing a shoe has a different meaning in the Muslim world I think...

      But I haven't changed really since I was one. I liked birthdays when I was one.

      Grin,

      Han

      Delete
  5. Hi Han, You made me aware of how much I could forget in 54 years. Thanks.

    appy

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Like yesterday, Appy, it will feel like yesterday to you... Only 54 years back. What were you doing in 1960?

      Delete
    2. I was working as a bookkeeper for a factory of lead caps for wine bottles. And I was not enjoying the roaring sixties. I was very dull and green.

      Delete
    3. I understand that feeling Appy, kids nowadays are so much more smart then I was at their age. That is really a hope for our future, kids don't need so much time to mature as I did.

      Or maybe it was just me :-) LOL

      Han

      Delete
  6. Wow! A lot of information..... still before my time but history is good to know so we don't repeat the ugly and the bad

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I wonder where "history repeats itself" comes from Blondie. I admire all of you who have a mouse arm from scrolling down. Way too long post, sorry about that, couldn't skip more...

      Thank you for your comment Blondie. I appreciate it.

      Han

      Delete

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